Author Archives: mooadmin


CURRICULUM: Wetlands Text Wetland Plant Guide  Additional Links: The Chesapeake Bay Program has a great write-up on wetlands here: https://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/wetlands Environmental Concern has several teacher-friendly publications about wetlands: https://wetland.org/education/publications/ Here is an interesting video about wetlands by Bill Nye the Science Guy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeUPbGWg2KU

Action Items

There are many actions that individuals can take to lessen their impact on the Chesapeake Bay.  In this lesson, students are introduced to projects that residents of Chestertown have implemented to improve the health of the Chester River. CURRICULUM: Action Projects Additional Links: This list from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources has lots of examples of effective action projects to improve water quality: https://dnr.maryland.gov/education/Pages/Action_Projects.aspx   Here are some great ideas for student-led action projects from the Chesapeake Bay Program: […]

Paddling on Radcliffe Creek

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Oyster Dissection

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Crayfish Dissection

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Dissolved Oxygen

Organisms that breathe through gills require dissolved oxygen in the water.  How does oxygen get dissolved and how much of it do different species need?   CURRICULUM: Dissolved Oxygen Text Disolved Oxygen Visual Aid Additional Links: The USGS has a good series of articles about Dissolved Oxygen. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/dissolved-oxygen-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   The Chesapeake Bay Program has an interesting article about Dissolved Oxygen. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/dissolved_oxygen   A video from MIT explains dissolved oxygen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVW5LAzd7Ec


Intro text     pH Scale Text pH Scale      

Macro invertebrates

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Wiki Watershed tutorial

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Medical Tools

Vessels like SULTANA carried a doctor or surgeon on board.  These are some of the tools of the trade that would be used to assist sick or injured sailors.   CURRICULUM: Medical Practices on Sultana Text Medical Tools Guide – Visual Aid Additional Links: An article exploring 18th medical tools from a modern perspective. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2605303/   The BBC has a humorous but informative video on 18th century Medicine in general. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6r9O2KVhSQ

Sultana’s Log Books

During the time she was commissioned by the British Royal Navy we have detailed logs on SULTANA’s history including where she sailed, what the weather was like, and how the crew behaved.   CURRICULUM: Guide to Sultana’s Logbooks Logbook Entry, September 8 – 18, 1768 Logbook Entry, Feb 24 – Mar 8, 1769 Logbook Entry, April 12 – 24, 1771 Logbook Entry, September 5 – 13, 1771 Logbook Entry, May 9 – 19, 1772 Logbook Entry, October 12 – 23, […]

Living Quarters

Life wasn’t easy for the crew of the original SULTANA.  Take a look at their living quarters below deck as you imagine the daily routine of an 18th century sailor.   CURRICULUM: A Day in the Life of a Sultana Crew Member Additional Links: An article about the daily life of sailing in the 18th century. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/life_at_sea_01.shtml   A video about the type of food people may have eaten aboard naval ships. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1NcWU0xTog

Sultana’s Rigging

The lines running from SULTANA’s masts are known as rigging.  Each line serves a different function.  How is it all organized?   CURRICULUM: Sultana’s Spars and Rigging Text Sultana’s Spars and Rigging Visual Aid Additional Links: An instructional video on rigging. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXNANoQ2BbE

Sultana’s Sails

Learn the names of SULTANA’s sails and how their shapes and positions will differently impact her movement.   CURRICULUM: Sultana’s Sails Text Addition Links: An older video exploring what it takes to sail a ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6DZIvMZWzQ   A news story about a French sailboat that is a replica of an 18th century shipt. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fakw-bS3ujI

Sultana Deck Tour

Learn the major parts on SULTANA including directions and the names of her four decks.   CURRICULUM: Parts of a Ship – The Basics Additional links: Here is an article from the American Sailing Association about the definition of a schooner. https://asa.com/news/2015/12/09/whats-in-a-rig-the-schooner/   A look at different types of sailing ships that are similar, but have some differences, from Sultana.   https://www.starclippers.co.uk/the-different-types-of-tall-sailing-ships.html

The Boston Massacre

The tensions between the colonists and the British troops came to a head in events that became known as the Boston Massacre, an event whose dramatic retelling helped galvanize support for revolution.   CURRICULUM: Boston Massacre Text Additional Links: A history channel article about the Boston Massacre. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-boston-massacre   A quick overview of the Boston Massacre from the History channel. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/boston-massacre

Engraving of Boston Harbor

King George responded to the unrest in the Colonies, including the Boston Tea Party, by landing garrisons of British troops in the Boston Harbor.  We know from her logs, that SULTANA was present for these events.   CURRICULUM: Boston Harbor Text Additional Links: An article about Boston in the American Revolution. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/siege-of-boston   A National Park Service Guide to important places in Boston during the American Revolution. https://www.nps.gov/bost/learn/historyculture/rev-war.htm

Tarring and Feathering

One of the best-known political cartoons of the 18th century illustrates the colonists’ displeasure at paying taxes.  In this depiction several businessmen can be seen tarring an feathering a British tax-collector.   CURRICULUM: Tarring and Feathering Text Additional Links: A timeline of British taxation in the mid 1760s. https://www.loc.gov/collections/continental-congress-and-constitutional-convention-from-1774-to-1789/articles-and-essays/timeline/1764-to-1765/   A quick overview of  the Stamp Act. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/stamp-act-imposed-on-american-colonies   Article on the colonists’ response to British taxes in America. https://www.history.com/news/the-stamp-act-riots-250-years-ago

African American Sailors

Examine what life was like black sailors, both free and enslaved, in the 18th century.  One of the crew listed in SULTANA’s muster book is Prince Gould, a 45-year old African American man.   CURRICULUM: African American Experience at Sea Additional Links: A web page with a series of links to different kinds of African American sailors in history. https://portsidenewyork.org/afam-maritime   A video explaining the role of African Americans in the American revolution, including as sailors. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3p-uo03CtE

The Triangle Trade

The Triangle Trade network between Europe, Africa, South America, and North America moved people and goods between countries so that any time a ship was moving between ports she was carrying something to trade.   CURRICULUM: Triangle Trade Text Triangle Trade Visual Aid Additional Links: An overview from PBS about the Triangle Trade. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/stories/articles/2016/01/11/triangular-trade   An article about the nature of the triangle trade. https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/africa_caribbean/britain_trade.htm   A visual explanation of the Triangle Trade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNFiyJZQ-AM

Sultana’s Tiller

SULTANA is steered not by a wheel, but with a tiller.  This device can manipulate the tiller from port to starboard allowing the vessel to maneuver.   CURRICULUM: Steering with the Tiller Additional Links: A visual guide to an 18th century sailboat, including the tiller. https://cnx.org/contents/MKkkS-a6@3.2:ABAPE9px@8/Principal-Parts-and-Sails-of-19th-Century-Sailing-Ships   An explanation of the tiller’s role in steering the ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3UX67RjrL0  

Navigation: Chip Log

In order to calculate a ship’s position in the ocean it was important to take occasional measurements of her sailing speed.  A chip log was used to record, in knots, how fast the vessel was sailing.   CURRICULUM: Chip Log Text Additional Links: Some information on the Chip Log. https://www.brighthubengineering.com/seafaring/60582-what-is-a-chip-log/   A kid friendly video explaining how the chip log was used. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXHgkKaOAxg

Navigation: Lead Line

When navigating waterways with unknown depths a lead line was used to quickly give measurements in order to keep the vessel from running aground.   CURRICULUM: Lead Line Text Additional Links: An explanation of how the Lead Line was used. https://seahistory.org/sea-history-for-kids/leadline/   A quick tutorial for figuring out a depth at sea in the age before electonics. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDE4SlYdn5E

Navigation: the Octant

An octant was used to calculate a ship’s position on the earth using the mid-day sun.  By drawing a triangle between the sun, the ship, and the horizon line sailors could estimate their ‘dead-reckoning’.    CURRICULUM: Octant Visual Aid Additional Links: The Smithsonian provides an overview on using the octant for navigation at sea. https://amhistory.si.edu/navigation/type.cfm?typeid=4   A tutorial for using the Octant. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0A_ue9DBmw

Latitude and Longitude

The imaginary lines that run lengthwise and widthwise across the earth were crucial to navigation in the days before GPS.  Take a look at how sailors used mathematic calculations to keep their vessels on course. CURRICULUM: Latitude and Longitude Text Latitude and Longitude Visual Aid Latitude and Longitude Hands-On Activity Additional links: Some basic information about latitude and longitude. https://www.britannica.com/science/latitude   A kid friendly overview of latitude and longitude, https://www.youtube.co/watch?v=MSA88mmFuyE

Swivel Gun

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Flintlock Musket

This was a common weapon carried onboard SULTANA and across Revolutionary battlefields.  Take a look at how it functions as well as some of its potential shortcomings.    CURRICULUM: Armaments on Sultana Text Flintlock Musket Visual Aid Additional Links: A historical look at the Flintlock musket, https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/flintlock-musket.html   Kentucky Fish and Wildlife examines the historical context of the Flintlock musket. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTISwguy0DU


Before the days of electricity and refrigeration food had to be preserved and well-suited to transportation for months-long voyages across the ocean.  These are some of the staples of an 18th century sailor’s diet.   CURRICULUM: Food on Sultana Text Additional Links: A Swedish video (with subtitles) about 18th century food aboard ships at sea.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wwtC_PP98Qs   A video about Hard Tack on a ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyjcJUGuFVg

History of Sultana

Prior to the American Revolution, the schooner SULTANA patrolled the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay ensuring that colonial ships had paid taxes on their cargo.    CURRICULUM: The Townshend Acts of 1767 The Start of the American Revolution The Burning of the HMS Gaspee The Stamp Act of 1765 The Boston, Chester Town, and Annapolis Tea Parties Sultana Joins the Royal Navy Sultana Patrols the Chesapeake Seven Years_ War Life in the Thirteen Colonies Before 1755 Lieutenant John Inglis Additional […]

Indigenous People Today

Native Americans are not an extinct culture.  Today tens of thousands of people across the watershed identify as American Indian. CURRICULUM: Indigenous People Today Text Additional Links: Websites for recognized modern tribes in Maryland and Virginia: Piscataway Conoy Tribe http://www.piscatawayconoytribe.com/   Chickahominy Tribe http://www.chickahominytribe.org/   Mattaponi Tribe https://www.mattaponination.com/   Monacan Indian Nation http://www.monacannation.com/   Nansemond Tribe https://nansemond.org/   Pamunkey Tribe http://pamunkey.org/   Rappahannock Tribe https://www.rappahannocktribe.org/   Upper Mattaponi Tribe https://umitribe.org/   Cheroenhaka- Nottoway Tribe http://www.cheroenhaka-nottoway.org/home.htm   Patawomeck Tribe http://patawomeckindiantribeofvirginia.org/  

Natural Resources

The varied ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay provided the Native Americans with an abundance of natural resources.  The rivers allowed them to travel in order to trade these resources across different regions. CURRICULUM: Natural Resources Text Additional Links: The National Park Service identifies the tribes in the Chesapeake Bay when English settlement began. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/tribes-and-cultures.htm   The National Park Service provides an overview of the Powhatan tribe at the time of English colonization. https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/chronology-of-powhatan-indian-activity.htm   Bucknell University provides some information on […]

John White’s Clay Pot

Using John White’s 1585 watercolor paintings as well was pottery shards discovered in the Chesapeake region, this clay pot was constructed to represent a type used by the Native Americans. CURRICULUM: Clay Pot Text Clay Pot – Primary vs Secondary Sources

Who Lived Where?

The Native Americans of the 18th century Chesapeake Bay did not write their own history, but through documents like John Smith’s map and journals some of their stories can be learned. CURRICULUM: Native Americans Text Native Americans in 1608 Additional Links: The National Park Service identifies the tribes in the Chesapeake Bay when English settlement began. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/tribes-and-cultures.htm   The National Park Service provides an overview of the Powhatan tribe at the time of English colonization. https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/chronology-of-powhatan-indian-activity.htm   Bucknell University provides […]

John Smith’s Map

John Smith produced the first accurate map of the Chesapeake Bay.  This document not only shows us the geographical features of the region, but also documents the numerous tribes who were living here. CURRICULUM: Guide to Smith’s Map Additional Links: The National Park Service provides background information on Smith’s map as well as a printable version. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/smith-maps.htm   Historic Jamestown provides a brief biography of Captain John Smith, https://historicjamestowne.org/history/pocahontas/john-smith/

John Smith’s Second Voyage

John Smith set out from Jamestown with 14 men in a small boat in order to explore and map the Chesapeake region.  This is an account of his second voyage. CURRICULUM: John Smith’s Second Voyage Text John Smith’s Second Voyage Map Additional Links: The National Park Service provides detailed information on John Smith’s 2nd voyage. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/second-voyage.htm   A more in depth resource on John Smith from Virtual Jamestown. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/exist/cocoon/Jamestown/fha-js/SmiWorks1

Stone Axes

Stone axes were a crucial tool for constructing dugout canoes as well as longhouses and wigwams.  This reproduction offers an example of what a Native American axe may have looked like. CURRICULUM: Stone Axes Additional Links: University of Iowa provides an overview on Stone Axes and other similar tools. https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/ground-stone-artifacts-0   Indiana Public Television provides an in-depth look at different artifacts. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1w0Za9vSAA

Bows and Arrows

This reproduction offers an example of what Native American bows and arrows may have looked like.  These tools would’ve allowed for more successful hunts when compared with the spear hunting of earlier cultures. CURRICULUM: Bows and Arrows Text Additional Links: University of Iowa explains the technology of bows and arrows. https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/american-indian-archery-technology-0   An exploration of different hunting implements and weapons of war for indigenous peoples. http://www.native-languages.org/weapons.htm

Projectile Points

This collection of 300 points were all found around the northern portions of the Chesapeake Bay.  Today these stones serve as evidence of the Native American hunters who were here as long as 10,000 years ago. CURRICULUM: Projectile Points Text Additional Links: This is a database for different kinds of projectile points. https://www.projectilepoints.net/   The Maryland Archeological Conservation Lab explains more about projectile points. https://apps.jefpat.maryland.gov/diagnostic/ProjectilePoints/index-projectilepoints.html

Flint Knapping

The technique used to sharpen stones for knives, spears, and arrowheads is known as flint knapping.  Today these stones serve as evidence of the Native American hunters who were here as long as 10,000 years ago. CURRICULUM: Flint Knapping Additional Links: The University of Iowa provides a written description of Flint Knapping https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/flintknapping-0   The Cleveland Museum of Natural History provides a demonstration of Flint Knapping. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2CcHYuOEsE

Their Sitting at Meate

John White’s 1585 image of Native Americans eating shows that meals were a communal activity and that tribes were consuming the natural resources available in their particular regions. CURRICULUM: Sitting at Meate Text Sitting at Meate – Primary vs Secondary Sources Additional Links: A description of how the Powhatan acquired food. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/how-did-the-powhatan-acquire-food/ An article exploring different foods native people in the Chesapeake region would have eaten. https://soyummy.com/what-pocahontas-ate/ A description of some of the indigenous peoples’ recreational activities. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-did-the-powhatan-do-for-recreation/ An article […]

John White’s Native Woman

John White’s 1585 portrait of ‘One of the Wives of Wingino’ offers an example of Native American tattoos.  CURRICULUM: Native Woman Text Additional Links: A short explanation of the role that women and children had in Powhatan society. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-roles-did-men-women-and-children-have-in-powhatan-society/   Information from the Mariner’s Museum about the role of women in Powhatan daily life. https://www.marinersmuseum.org/sites/micro/cbhf/native/nam006.html

John White’s Secoton

John White’s 1585 painting of the village of Secoton highlights how a successful tribe required its members to perform a wide variety of tasks every day. CURRICULUM: Secoton Text Secoton – Primary vs Secondary Sources Additional Links: A collection of writings and lesson plans about the Indians of the Chesapeake Bay region. https://americanindian.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/education/chesapeake.pdf   A Smithsonian article exploring the political landscape of the Chesapeake region in the early 17th century. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/following-footsteps-capt-john-smith-smithsonian-scholar-finds-neglected-history-180960984/

John White’s Archer

This is John White’s 1585 painting of an archer.  His tools, clothing, hair, and jewelry help illustrate features that would’ve been found amongst different Chesapeake tribes. CURRICULUM: Archer Text (Algonquin Archer) Archer – Primary vs Secondary Sources Additional Links: A quick article explaining some of the clothing items worn by the Powhatan. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/how-did-the-powhatan-look-and-dress/   An informative video about the clothing and culture of the indigenous peoples in the Chesapeake. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiaVB27Cw5c

John White’s Pomeiock

John White’s 1585 painting illustrates a palisaded, or fortified, village.  This was a technique used to protect its inhabitants from raiding tribes. CURRICULUM: Pomeiock Text Pomeiock – Primary vs Secondary Sources Additional Links: An example and explanation for a Powhatan home. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-were-powhatan-homes-like/   A video exploring what a Powhatan village may have looked like in the early 17th century. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcNIInL9gtY

John White’s Fishing Scene

John White’s 1585 painting shows multiple fishing techniques implemented by Native Americans.  This image also highlights the abundance of marine life found in the region at the time. CURRICULUM: The Manner of Their Fishing Text Fishing Scene – Primary vs Secondary Sources Additional Links: An article on the different ways Chesapeake Indigenous peoples fished. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians   A video explaining the use of pound net, a technology used in the Chesapeake for hundreds of years. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JVd4EkN44E

John Smith’s First Voyage

John Smith set out from Jamestown with 14 men in a small boat in order to explore and map the Chesapeake region.  This is an account of his first voyage. CURRICULUM: John Smith’s First Voyage Text John Smith’s First Voyage Map Additional Links: An article from the National Park Service about the 1st Voyage of John Smith. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/first-voyage.htm   Here is an interactive map from Virtual Jamestown that allows you to explore John Smith’s voyages. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/smith_voyages/jsmith_voyages.html   National Geographic map […]


Diamondback Terrapins are the official state reptile of Maryland, which is fitting as they prefer the brackish waters of the Chesapeake Bay.  They can be identified by the distinctive diamond-shaped pattern on their shells.   CURRICULUM: Diamondback Terrapin Text Diamondback Terrapin Anatomy Additional Links: Some quick facts about Diamondback Terrapins. https://www.discoverwildlife.com/animal-facts/reptiles/facts-about-diamondback-terrapins/   The US Fish and Wildlife Service provides some great information about the Diamondback Terrapin. https://www.fws.gov/international/cites/cop16/diamondback-terrapin.html   Video of Diamondback Terrapins nesting. https://www.fws.gov/international/cites/cop16/diamondback-terrapin.html


Catfish are easily identified by their whisker-like features called barbels.  Let’s look at what they actually do for the fish as well as some of their other characteristics.    CURRICULUM: Channel Catfish Text Channel Catfish Anatomy Channel Catfish Facts Additional Links: Some quick facts from the Chesapeake Bay Program on Channel Catfish. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/channel_catfish   A story from Atlas Obscura examines how invasive catfish have altered the ecosystem of the Bay. https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/blue-catfish   A video about the impact that an invasive […]


Closely resembling a flounder, the Hog Choker is one of the Chesapeake Bay’s flatfish.  Because of their ability to camouflage and hide themselves, they are often unnoticed by most people.   CURRICULUM: Hog Choker Text Flatfishes of the Chesapeake Bay Hogchoker Migratory Eye Hogchoker Anatomy Additional Links: Information on the Hogcholker from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. https://www.vims.edu/research/departments/fisheries/programs/multispecies_fisheries_research/species_data/hogchoker/   More information on the Hogchoker from the Chesapeake Bay Program. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/hogchoker   Here is a short video showing how a […]

Water Quality – Secchi Disc

The water in the Chesapeake is not as clear as water in a swimming pool.  What makes it murkier and how can we measure this difference?   CURRICULUM: Secchi Depth Text Secchi Depth Visual Aid Additional Links: A description of a Secchi Disk. https://www.nalms.org/secchidipin/monitoring-methods/the-secchi-disk/what-is-a-secchi-disk/   The USGS provides important information about turbidity, which is what a secchi disk measures. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/turbidity-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   A quick article about how the Secchi Disk evolved over time. https://www.nalms.org/secchidipin/monitoring-methods/the-secchi-disk/why-a-black-and-white-secchi-disk/

Water Quality – Dissolved Oxygen

Intro text   video link   Dissolved Oxygen Text DO Needs of Bay Critters      

Water Quality – pH

Scientists measure a water’s pH level to see if it is acidic, basic, or neutral.  Let’s look at contributing factors that could tilt the scales in one direction or another. CURRICULUM: pH Scale Text pH Scale Visual Aid pH Scale Visual Aid 2  Additional Links: The USGS provides some information about the pH scale. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/ph-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   A short summary about why pH is an important measurement. https://sciencing.com/effect-ph-living-organisms-6723807.html   A video about how living organisms tolerate different pH levels in the […]

Water Quality – Nitrogen

Nitrogen can enter the Bay’s waterways through natural processes as well as man-made contributions.  How does this impact the health of the Chesapeake? CURRICULUM: Nitrogen Text Nitrogen Visual Aid Additional Links: The USGS provides an interactive map where students see the impact of nitrogen in the watershed, https://cbrim.er.usgs.gov/maps/   An article about nitrogen in the Potomac River. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016305234   A video explaining nutrient pollution from the EPA. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCicSNnKUvM

Watermen of the Chesapeake Bay

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Intertidal Zone (Seining)

CURRICULUM: Intertidal Zone Text ADDITIONAL LINKS: National Geographic article with a good definition of the intertidal zone: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/intertidal-zone/   The National Park Service provides an overview of different types of intertidal zones: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/oceans/intertidal.htm   PBS Digital Studios has a great video about the intertidal zone in oceanic environments: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DR1gP5S6Bsk  


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CURRICULUM: SAV Graph Additional Links: The Chesapeake Bay Program provides a great overview of underwater grasses: https://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/bay_grasses The MD Department of Natural Resources has developed an excellent key to identify SAVs: https://dnr.maryland.gov/waters/bay/Documents/SAV/complete_sav_key.pdf The Associated Press made a video about the recovery of SAVs on the Susquehanna Flats: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbE4AUN3k_4

Bald Eagles

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Fish Anatomy – White Perch

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Striped Bass

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Salinity refers to the amount of salt contained in a given sample of water.  When salt water from the ocean mixes with fresh water from the land it produces brackish water in the Chesapeake.  This range of salt levels will impact which organisms can live there.   CURRICULUM: Salinity Text Salinity Ranges in the Chesapeake Bay Salinity Range Salinity Levels and Fish Distribution Additional Links: Here is a series of articles about Salinity in estuaries from Freshwater Inflow. https://www.freshwaterinflow.org/estuarine-condition   […]

Eastern Oyster

A single adult oyster can filter up to 50-gallons of water in a single day.  For this reason, they may be one of the most important species when it comes to ensuring the health of the Chesapeake Bay. CURRICULUM: Oyster Text Oyster Graph Additional Links: Some basic information about the Eastern Oyster from NOAA. https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/eastern-oyster   The Baltimore Sun provides a timeline of the history of oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. https://www.baltimoresun.com/food-drink/bal-a-brief-history-of-oysters-in-the-chesapeake-bay-20140603-story.html   The North Carolina Sea Grant has a […]

Blue Crab

One of the best-known species in the Chesapeake is the Atlantic Blue Crab.  What makes these waterways such a productive habitat for this organism? CURRICULUM: Blue Crab Text Life Stages of the Blue Crab Blue Crab Graph Blue Crab Anatomy Additional Links: The National Aquarium provides some information on the Blue Crab. https://www.aqua.org/Experience/Animal-Index/blue-crab   This Scientific American article explores how habitat changes impact the behavior of the Blue Crab. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/blue-crabs-migrate-north-as-ocean-warms/   The Smithsonian explains how scientists track Blue Crab populations […]


The plankton, or drifters, of the Chesapeake Bay are often invisible to the human eye.  However, these plant and animal species for the base of the estuary’s food chain.   CURRICULUM: Plankton Text Plankton Visual Aid Holoplankton and Meroplankton Copepods Additional Links: Here is an interesting article about the evolving nature of plankton in our modern world. https://www.wired.com/2015/06/plankton-wonders-of-the-drifting-world/   Interesting information on plankton from the magazine The Scientist. https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/mixing-it-up-in-the-web-of-life-65431   A video from TED exploring plankton. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFQ_fO2D7f0


64,000 square miles of land around the Bay “shed” their water into the Chesapeake through streams, rivers, and runoff.  Let’s take a look at how that works. CURRICULUM: Watershed Text Watershed Map Additional Links: National Geographic provides a series of maps of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/maps/chesapeake-bay/   The EPA provides a great deal of information about the general plan for the Chesapeake Bay. https://www.epa.gov/chesapeake-bay-tmdl   Here is a video from NASA about how we can learn about the watershed […]

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