Author Archives: mooadmin

Ready, Set, Grow!

All living things change throughout their lives. Plants and animals are born, grow up, and eventually die. This process is known as a life cycle. Living things that are related, for example, butterflies, go through the same life cycle. Sometimes changes that occur during the life cycle look small, and other times, they almost look like a completely different organism! Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Birds of the Chesapeake

Birds are animals with backbones with a beak, wings, feathers, two legs, lay eggs, and are warm-blooded. Some birds, like the Mourning Dove, live in Maryland all year long. Others, like Osprey, only live in Maryland for part of the year. There are hundreds of species, or types, of birds that rely on the Chesapeake Bay region for food, water, shelter, and space. Printables:   “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Spring is Coming!

The days are getting longer, and the nights are getting shorter. Do you know what that means? Spring is coming! – Spring is the transition between winter and summer. The warmer temperatures and rain are important to plants as they grow leaves and flowers. This is also the season when we start to see a lot of baby animals. Go outside and see what you can find! Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Creatures in Camouflage

Camouflage helps animals survive in their habitat. It can help animals hide from predators (animals that might eat them). For predators, camouflage can help them blend into their habitat while they are hunting for food. Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Nature’s Builders

Animals make their homes in lots of different habitats. But sometimes, the environment doesn’t feel quite right… something is missing! Many animals change their habitat by digging holes, building nests, or spinning webs. Sometimes animals change their habitat by making it more comfortable. Scientists call these animals Ecosystem Engineers. Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Toddler Time Programming

Ages 3-5 / FREE! / 20-30 Mins. Fridays, January 22-April 9 Virtual Toddler Time lets children explore the natural world through stories, songs, games, crafts and interactions with wildlife – all led by SEF’s professional staff. Held each Friday at 10:30 am from January thru April, Toddler Time is both education and FUN! At this time the program will be held virtually via ZOOM and broken into 4 sessions (see schedule). Program supplies will be available for pick-up the Wednesday […]

Radiant Reptiles

Reptiles are a type of cold-blooded animal with a backbone, dry, scaly skin, and lays eggs. Turtles, lizards, and snakes are examples of reptiles. Did you know Maryland is home toover 50 different kinds of reptiles?!? Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Let it Snow!

Did you know that water can be a solid, liquid, or gas?!? Snow is a special form of solid water that forms when water freezes around tiny bits of dirt inside a cloud. No two snowflakes are alike. Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Groundhog Day

February is here, and we all know what that means, Groundhog Day is near! Legend has it; if a groundhog sees their shadow in early February, we will have six more weeks of winter. If groundhogs don’t see their shadow, then spring is on its way! Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links: Mayor Cerino Looks for Chestertown Charlie

Fantastic Fish

Fish are animals that live in the water and have backbones, gills, and fins. The Chesapeake Bay is home to nearly 350 different kinds of fish. From Northern Pufferfish to Atlantic Sturgeon and Bullnose Sharks to Hogchokers, the Bay is full of fantastic fish! Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Animals in Winter

The days are cold and short! Thick fur, sleeping through the winter, or moving to a warmer area are just a few of the many ways animals can survive winter. Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Animal Families

Animal families, like ours, come in different shapes and sizes. Some families, like Beaver colonies, have parents, older siblings, and younger siblings. While otheranimals, like turtles, the young never see their parents! Printables:   “How To” Videos:   Additional Links:


Printables: Additional Links: The Chesapeake Bay Program has a great write-up on wetlands here: https://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/wetlands Environmental Concern has several teacher-friendly publications about wetlands: https://wetland.org/education/publications/ Here is an interesting video about wetlands by Bill Nye the Science Guy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeUPbGWg2KU

Wiggling Worms

Wiggly, squiggly, slimy worms are an important food source for animals and help plants by burrowing through the soil. Printables:   “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Eastern Oysters

The Chesapeake Bay is home to the Eastern Oyster. Oysters are bivalves, animals with two shells that spend almost all of their life in one spot. Oysters are an important part of the Bay ecosystem because they provide food and habitat for other animals. They also help clean the water just by eating! Printables: “How To” Videos: Additional Links:

Down by the Bay

When fresh water reaches the Chesapeake, it mixes with salt water from the Atlantic Ocean to create brackish water. Ecosystems that contain brackish water are called estuaries. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in North America. It is also home to over 2,000 species of plants and animals! Some of the most well-known animals are oysters, crabs, and striped bass (rockfish). Printables: “How-To” Videos: Additional Links:  

Awesome Amphibians

Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that have a backbone and lay eggs. Most amphibians spend their “childhood” in water and “adulthood” on land. Frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts are all examples of amphibians. Printables: “How-To” Videos:   Additional Links:

Action Items

There are many actions that individuals can take to lessen their impact on the Chesapeake Bay.  In this lesson, students are introduced to projects that residents of Chestertown have implemented to improve the health of the Chester River. Printables: Additional Links: This list from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources has lots of examples of effective action projects to improve water quality: https://dnr.maryland.gov/education/Pages/Action_Projects.aspx   Here are some great ideas for student-led action projects from the Chesapeake Bay Program: http://baybackpack.com/schoolyard_projects   […]

Paddling on Radcliffe Creek

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Oyster Dissection

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Crayfish Dissection

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Dissolved Oxygen

Organisms that breathe through gills require dissolved oxygen in the water.  How does oxygen get dissolved and how much of it do different species need?   Printables: Additional Links: The USGS has a good series of articles about Dissolved Oxygen. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/dissolved-oxygen-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   The Chesapeake Bay Program has an interesting article about Dissolved Oxygen. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/dissolved_oxygen   A video from MIT explains dissolved oxygen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVW5LAzd7Ec


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Macro invertebrates

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Wiki Watershed tutorial

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Medical Tools

Vessels like SULTANA carried a doctor or surgeon on board.  These are some of the tools of the trade that would be used to assist sick or injured sailors.   Printables: Additional Links: An article exploring 18th medical tools from a modern perspective. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2605303/   The BBC has a humorous but informative video on 18th century Medicine in general. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6r9O2KVhSQ

Sultana’s Log Books

During the time she was commissioned by the British Royal Navy we have detailed logs on SULTANA’s history including where she sailed, what the weather was like, and how the crew behaved.   Printables:   Additional Links: An article from the US Navy exploring the role logbooks played in understanding the seas. https://www.usna.edu/Users/oceano/pguth/website/shipwrecks/logbooks_lesson/logbooks_lesson.htm   Stanford discussion about what we can learn from Logbooks. https://arcade.stanford.edu/content/logging-ships-log-medium-0  

Living Quarters

Life wasn’t easy for the crew of the original SULTANA.  Take a look at their living quarters below deck as you imagine the daily routine of an 18th century sailor.   Printables: Additional Links: An article about the daily life of sailing in the 18th century. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/life_at_sea_01.shtml   A video about the type of food people may have eaten aboard naval ships. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1NcWU0xTog

Sultana’s Rigging

The lines running from SULTANA’s masts are known as rigging.  Each line serves a different function.  How is it all organized?   Printables: Additional Links: An instructional video on rigging. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXNANoQ2BbE

Sultana’s Sails

Learn the names of SULTANA’s sails and how their shapes and positions will differently impact her movement.   Printables: Addition Links: An older video exploring what it takes to sail a ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6DZIvMZWzQ   A news story about a French sailboat that is a replica of an 18th century shipt. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fakw-bS3ujI

Sultana Deck Tour

Learn the major parts on SULTANA including directions and the names of her four decks.   Printables: Additional links: Here is an article from the American Sailing Association about the definition of a schooner. https://asa.com/news/2015/12/09/whats-in-a-rig-the-schooner/   A look at different types of sailing ships that are similar, but have some differences, from Sultana.   https://www.starclippers.co.uk/the-different-types-of-tall-sailing-ships.html

The Boston Massacre

The tensions between the colonists and the British troops came to a head in events that became known as the Boston Massacre, an event whose dramatic retelling helped galvanize support for revolution.   Printables: Additional Links: A history channel article about the Boston Massacre. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-boston-massacre   A quick overview of the Boston Massacre from the History channel. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/boston-massacre

Engraving of Boston Harbor

King George responded to the unrest in the Colonies, including the Boston Tea Party, by landing garrisons of British troops in the Boston Harbor.  We know from her logs, that SULTANA was present for these events.   Printables: Additional Links: An article about Boston in the American Revolution. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/siege-of-boston   A National Park Service Guide to important places in Boston during the American Revolution. https://www.nps.gov/bost/learn/historyculture/rev-war.htm

Tarring and Feathering

One of the best-known political cartoons of the 18th century illustrates the colonists’ displeasure at paying taxes.  In this depiction several businessmen can be seen tarring an feathering a British tax-collector.   Printables: Additional Links: A timeline of British taxation in the mid 1760s. https://www.loc.gov/collections/continental-congress-and-constitutional-convention-from-1774-to-1789/articles-and-essays/timeline/1764-to-1765/   A quick overview of  the Stamp Act. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/stamp-act-imposed-on-american-colonies   Article on the colonists’ response to British taxes in America. https://www.history.com/news/the-stamp-act-riots-250-years-ago

African American Sailors

Examine what life was like black sailors, both free and enslaved, in the 18th century.  One of the crew listed in SULTANA’s muster book is Prince Gould, a 45-year old African American man.   Printables: Additional Links: A web page with a series of links to different kinds of African American sailors in history. https://portsidenewyork.org/afam-maritime   A video explaining the role of African Americans in the American revolution, including as sailors. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3p-uo03CtE

The Triangle Trade

The Triangle Trade network between Europe, Africa, South America, and North America moved people and goods between countries so that any time a ship was moving between ports she was carrying something to trade.   Printables: Additional Links: An overview from PBS about the Triangle Trade. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/stories/articles/2016/01/11/triangular-trade   An article about the nature of the triangle trade. https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/africa_caribbean/britain_trade.htm   A visual explanation of the Triangle Trade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNFiyJZQ-AM

Sultana’s Tiller

SULTANA is steered not by a wheel, but with a tiller.  This device can manipulate the tiller from port to starboard allowing the vessel to maneuver.   Printables: Additional Links: A visual guide to an 18th century sailboat, including the tiller. https://cnx.org/contents/MKkkS-a6@3.2:ABAPE9px@8/Principal-Parts-and-Sails-of-19th-Century-Sailing-Ships   An explanation of the tiller’s role in steering the ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3UX67RjrL0  

Navigation: Chip Log

In order to calculate a ship’s position in the ocean it was important to take occasional measurements of her sailing speed.  A chip log was used to record, in knots, how fast the vessel was sailing.   Printables: Additional Links: Some information on the Chip Log. https://www.brighthubengineering.com/seafaring/60582-what-is-a-chip-log/   A kid friendly video explaining how the chip log was used. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXHgkKaOAxg

Navigation: Lead Line

When navigating waterways with unknown depths a lead line was used to quickly give measurements in order to keep the vessel from running aground.   Printables: Additional Links: An explanation of how the Lead Line was used. https://seahistory.org/sea-history-for-kids/leadline/   A quick tutorial for figuring out a depth at sea in the age before electonics. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDE4SlYdn5E

Navigation: the Octant

An octant was used to calculate a ship’s position on the earth using the mid-day sun.  By drawing a triangle between the sun, the ship, and the horizon line sailors could estimate their ‘dead-reckoning’.    Printables: Additional Links: The Smithsonian provides an overview on using the octant for navigation at sea. https://amhistory.si.edu/navigation/type.cfm?typeid=4   A tutorial for using the Octant. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0A_ue9DBmw

Latitude and Longitude

The imaginary lines that run lengthwise and widthwise across the earth were crucial to navigation in the days before GPS.  Take a look at how sailors used mathematic calculations to keep their vessels on course. Printables: Additional links: Some basic information about latitude and longitude. https://www.britannica.com/science/latitude   A kid friendly overview of latitude and longitude, https://www.youtube.co/watch?v=MSA88mmFuyE

Swivel Gun

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Flintlock Musket

This was a common weapon carried onboard SULTANA and across Revolutionary battlefields.  Take a look at how it functions as well as some of its potential shortcomings.    Printables: Additional Links: A historical look at the Flintlock musket, https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/flintlock-musket.html   Kentucky Fish and Wildlife examines the historical context of the Flintlock musket. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTISwguy0DU


Before the days of electricity and refrigeration food had to be preserved and well-suited to transportation for months-long voyages across the ocean.  These are some of the staples of an 18th century sailor’s diet.   Printables: Additional Links: A Swedish video (with subtitles) about 18th century food aboard ships at sea.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wwtC_PP98Qs   A video about Hard Tack on a ship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyjcJUGuFVg

History of Sultana

Prior to the American Revolution, the schooner SULTANA patrolled the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay ensuring that colonial ships had paid taxes on their cargo.    Printables: Additional Links: Here is an archived article on the internet about the original HMS Sultana. https://web.archive.org/web/20041217181616/http://www.schoonersultana.com/education_pages/wood_water_beef.htm   A video exploring some of the work that an 18th century sailor may have done on the HMS Sultana. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CN7XoJ9PGNA Sultana’s Commanding Officer, Lt John Inglis   [/su_spoiler]  

Indigenous People Today

Native Americans are not an extinct culture.  Today tens of thousands of people across the watershed identify as American Indian. Printables: Additional Links: Websites for recognized modern tribes in Maryland and Virginia: Piscataway Conoy Tribe http://www.piscatawayconoytribe.com/   Chickahominy Tribe http://www.chickahominytribe.org/   Mattaponi Tribe https://www.mattaponination.com/   Monacan Indian Nation http://www.monacannation.com/   Nansemond Tribe https://nansemond.org/   Pamunkey Tribe http://pamunkey.org/   Rappahannock Tribe https://www.rappahannocktribe.org/   Upper Mattaponi Tribe https://umitribe.org/   Cheroenhaka- Nottoway Tribe http://www.cheroenhaka-nottoway.org/home.htm   Patawomeck Tribe http://patawomeckindiantribeofvirginia.org/  

Natural Resources

The varied ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay provided the Native Americans with an abundance of natural resources.  The rivers allowed them to travel in order to trade these resources across different regions. Printables: Additional Links: The National Park Service identifies the tribes in the Chesapeake Bay when English settlement began. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/tribes-and-cultures.htm   The National Park Service provides an overview of the Powhatan tribe at the time of English colonization. https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/chronology-of-powhatan-indian-activity.htm   Bucknell University provides some information on the Susquehannock tribe […]

John White’s Clay Pot

Using John White’s 1585 watercolor paintings as well was pottery shards discovered in the Chesapeake region, this clay pot was constructed to represent a type used by the Native Americans. Printables:

Who Lived Where?

The Native Americans of the 18th century Chesapeake Bay did not write their own history, but through documents like John Smith’s map and journals some of their stories can be learned. Printables: Additional Links: The National Park Service identifies the tribes in the Chesapeake Bay when English settlement began. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/tribes-and-cultures.htm   The National Park Service provides an overview of the Powhatan tribe at the time of English colonization. https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/chronology-of-powhatan-indian-activity.htm   Bucknell University provides some information on the Susquehannock tribe in […]

John Smith’s Map

John Smith produced the first accurate map of the Chesapeake Bay.  This document not only shows us the geographical features of the region, but also documents the numerous tribes who were living here. Printables: Additional Links: The National Park Service provides background information on Smith’s map as well as a printable version. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/smith-maps.htm   Historic Jamestown provides a brief biography of Captain John Smith, https://historicjamestowne.org/history/pocahontas/john-smith/

John Smith’s Second Voyage

John Smith set out from Jamestown with 14 men in a small boat in order to explore and map the Chesapeake region.  This is an account of his second voyage. Printables: Additional Links: The National Park Service provides detailed information on John Smith’s 2nd voyage. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/second-voyage.htm   A more in depth resource on John Smith from Virtual Jamestown. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/exist/cocoon/Jamestown/fha-js/SmiWorks1

Stone Axes

Stone axes were a crucial tool for constructing dugout canoes as well as longhouses and wigwams.  This reproduction offers an example of what a Native American axe may have looked like. Printables: Additional Links: University of Iowa provides an overview on Stone Axes and other similar tools. https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/ground-stone-artifacts-0   Indiana Public Television provides an in-depth look at different artifacts. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1w0Za9vSAA

Bows and Arrows

This reproduction offers an example of what Native American bows and arrows may have looked like.  These tools would’ve allowed for more successful hunts when compared with the spear hunting of earlier cultures. Printables: Additional Links: University of Iowa explains the technology of bows and arrows. https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/american-indian-archery-technology-0   An exploration of different hunting implements and weapons of war for indigenous peoples. http://www.native-languages.org/weapons.htm

Projectile Points

This collection of 300 points were all found around the northern portions of the Chesapeake Bay.  Today these stones serve as evidence of the Native American hunters who were here as long as 10,000 years ago. Printables: Additional Links: This is a database for different kinds of projectile points. https://www.projectilepoints.net/   The Maryland Archeological Conservation Lab explains more about projectile points. https://apps.jefpat.maryland.gov/diagnostic/ProjectilePoints/index-projectilepoints.html

Flint Knapping

The technique used to sharpen stones for knives, spears, and arrowheads is known as flint knapping.  Today these stones serve as evidence of the Native American hunters who were here as long as 10,000 years ago. Printables: Additional Links: The University of Iowa provides a written description of Flint Knapping https://archaeology.uiowa.edu/flintknapping-0   The Cleveland Museum of Natural History provides a demonstration of Flint Knapping. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2CcHYuOEsE

Their Sitting at Meate

John White’s 1585 image of Native Americans eating shows that meals were a communal activity and that tribes were consuming the natural resources available in their particular regions. Printables: Additional Links: A description of how the Powhatan acquired food. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/how-did-the-powhatan-acquire-food/ An article exploring different foods native people in the Chesapeake region would have eaten. https://soyummy.com/what-pocahontas-ate/ A description of some of the indigenous peoples’ recreational activities. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-did-the-powhatan-do-for-recreation/ An article about games and recreation. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Games_by_Early_Virginia_Indians_Uses_of

John White’s Native Woman

John White’s 1585 portrait of ‘One of the Wives of Wingino’ offers an example of Native American tattoos.  Printables: Additional Links: A short explanation of the role that women and children had in Powhatan society. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-roles-did-men-women-and-children-have-in-powhatan-society/   Information from the Mariner’s Museum about the role of women in Powhatan daily life. https://www.marinersmuseum.org/sites/micro/cbhf/native/nam006.html

John White’s Secoton

John White’s 1585 painting of the village of Secoton highlights how a successful tribe required its members to perform a wide variety of tasks every day. Printables: Additional Links: A collection of writings and lesson plans about the Indians of the Chesapeake Bay region. https://americanindian.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/education/chesapeake.pdf   A Smithsonian article exploring the political landscape of the Chesapeake region in the early 17th century. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/following-footsteps-capt-john-smith-smithsonian-scholar-finds-neglected-history-180960984/

John White’s Archer

This is John White’s 1585 painting of an archer.  His tools, clothing, hair, and jewelry help illustrate features that would’ve been found amongst different Chesapeake tribes. Printables: Additional Links: A quick article explaining some of the clothing items worn by the Powhatan. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/how-did-the-powhatan-look-and-dress/   An informative video about the clothing and culture of the indigenous peoples in the Chesapeake. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiaVB27Cw5c

John White’s Pomeiock

John White’s 1585 painting illustrates a palisaded, or fortified, village.  This was a technique used to protect its inhabitants from raiding tribes. Printables: Additional Links: An example and explanation for a Powhatan home. https://www.historyisfun.org/learn/learning-center/what-were-powhatan-homes-like/   A video exploring what a Powhatan village may have looked like in the early 17th century. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcNIInL9gtY

John White’s Fishing Scene

John White’s 1585 painting shows multiple fishing techniques implemented by Native Americans.  This image also highlights the abundance of marine life found in the region at the time. Printables: Additional Links: An article on the different ways Chesapeake Indigenous peoples fished. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fishing_and_Shellfishing_by_Early_Virginia_Indians   A video explaining the use of pound net, a technology used in the Chesapeake for hundreds of years. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JVd4EkN44E

John Smith’s First Voyage

John Smith set out from Jamestown with 14 men in a small boat in order to explore and map the Chesapeake region.  This is an account of his first voyage. Printables: Additional Links: An article from the National Park Service about the 1st Voyage of John Smith. https://www.nps.gov/cajo/learn/historyculture/first-voyage.htm   Here is an interactive map from Virtual Jamestown that allows you to explore John Smith’s voyages. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/smith_voyages/jsmith_voyages.html   National Geographic map showing routes of John Smith’s voyages and Native political boundaries. […]


Diamondback Terrapins are the official state reptile of Maryland, which is fitting as they prefer the brackish waters of the Chesapeake Bay.  They can be identified by the distinctive diamond-shaped pattern on their shells.   Printables: Additional Links: Some quick facts about Diamondback Terrapins. https://www.discoverwildlife.com/animal-facts/reptiles/facts-about-diamondback-terrapins/   The US Fish and Wildlife Service provides some great information about the Diamondback Terrapin. https://www.fws.gov/international/cites/cop16/diamondback-terrapin.html   Video of Diamondback Terrapins nesting. https://www.fws.gov/international/cites/cop16/diamondback-terrapin.html


Catfish are easily identified by their whisker-like features called barbels.  Let’s look at what they actually do for the fish as well as some of their other characteristics.    Printables: Additional Links: Some quick facts from the Chesapeake Bay Program on Channel Catfish. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/channel_catfish   A story from Atlas Obscura examines how invasive catfish have altered the ecosystem of the Bay. https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/blue-catfish   A video about the impact that an invasive catfish has had on the Chesapeake Bay. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzKc51lvPUM


Closely resembling a flounder, the Hog Choker is one of the Chesapeake Bay’s flatfish.  Because of their ability to camouflage and hide themselves, they are often unnoticed by most people.   Printables: Additional Links: Information on the Hogcholker from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. https://www.vims.edu/research/departments/fisheries/programs/multispecies_fisheries_research/species_data/hogchoker/   More information on the Hogchoker from the Chesapeake Bay Program. https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/hogchoker   Here is a short video showing how a hogchoker buries itself for protection. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lu8FoSAl7sg

Water Quality – Secchi Disc

The water in the Chesapeake is not as clear as water in a swimming pool.  What makes it murkier and how can we measure this difference?   Printables: Additional Links: A description of a Secchi Disk. https://www.nalms.org/secchidipin/monitoring-methods/the-secchi-disk/what-is-a-secchi-disk/   The USGS provides important information about turbidity, which is what a secchi disk measures. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/turbidity-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   A quick article about how the Secchi Disk evolved over time. https://www.nalms.org/secchidipin/monitoring-methods/the-secchi-disk/why-a-black-and-white-secchi-disk/

Water Quality – Dissolved Oxygen

Intro text   video link   Dissolved Oxygen Text DO Needs of Bay Critters      

Water Quality – pH

Scientists measure a water’s pH level to see if it is acidic, basic, or neutral.  Let’s look at contributing factors that could tilt the scales in one direction or another. Printables: Additional Links: The USGS provides some information about the pH scale. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/ph-and-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects   A short summary about why pH is an important measurement. https://sciencing.com/effect-ph-living-organisms-6723807.html   A video about how living organisms tolerate different pH levels in the water column. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-nI3Ws7nxQ

Water Quality – Nitrogen

Nitrogen can enter the Bay’s waterways through natural processes as well as man-made contributions.  How does this impact the health of the Chesapeake? Printables: Additional Links: The USGS provides an interactive map where students see the impact of nitrogen in the watershed, https://cbrim.er.usgs.gov/maps/   An article about nitrogen in the Potomac River. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016305234   A video explaining nutrient pollution from the EPA. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCicSNnKUvM

Watermen of the Chesapeake Bay

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Intertidal Zone (Seining)

Printables: ADDITIONAL LINKS: National Geographic article with a good definition of the intertidal zone: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/intertidal-zone/   The National Park Service provides an overview of different types of intertidal zones: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/oceans/intertidal.htm   PBS Digital Studios has a great video about the intertidal zone in oceanic environments: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DR1gP5S6Bsk  


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